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K. Madison recognizes an age-old problem in governance: what to do about the inevitably unequal distribution of wealth in society. Madison understands individuals have different qualities and abilities, and that from these “unequal faculties of men” comes the unequal distribution of property. Madison says it is from these unequal faculties “from which the rights of property originate” and it is “the first object of government” to protect those faculties. Madison recognizes these unequal faculties and the resultant difference in the distribution of property will lead to trouble. He states:

the most common and durable source of factions has been the various and unequal distribution of property. Those who hold and those who are without property have ever formed distinct interests in society. Those who are creditors, and those who are debtors, fall under a like discrimination. A landed interest, a manufacturing interest, a mercantile interest, a moneyed interest, with many lesser interests, grow up of necessity in civilized nations, and divide them into different classes, actuated by different sentiments and views. The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislation, and involves the spirit of party and faction in the necessary and ordinary operations of government. (No. 10)

The difficult task for the new government was to secure property through the regulation of the “various and interfering interests” in society, and if possible, reign in “the spirit of party and faction.”

L. Thus, Madison warns against “a rage for paper money, for an abolition of debts, for an equal division of property, or for any other improper or wicked project (No. 10).” Issuing worthless paper money and abolishing debts were all actions tempting the state governments. For Madison, these activities were “improper or wicked.” These are the very things a government must not do. The federal government should not take these actions and should seek to prevent state governments from doing them, too. Such prohibitions, Madison notes, will “banish speculations on public measures, inspire a general prudence and industry, and give a regular course to the business of society (No. 44).”